Deep Dive Into Regulations for Digital Accessibility

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WCAG

WCAG 2.2 Compliance: A Guide to Best Conformance

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are the gold standard for inclusive design to make websites and digital content more accessible for people with disabilities. As technology and trends evolve, WCAG undergoes periodic evaluation and updates by the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) and working groups in the disability community. The latest update is WCAG 2.2. When a business or agency has achieved “WCAG 2.2 compliance,” they have applied design principles that provide a high level of accessibility to their web content. 

“Guidelines” are a set of recommendations or best practices designed to help organizations, or individuals achieve a certain goal or standard. They are not legally binding in and of themselves, and organizations or individuals are not required to follow them, so we generally speak of conforming with them. Laws, on the other hand, are binding rules or regulations that are established by a government or other legal authority. We “comply” with laws. 

While the WCAG are not legally binding in and of themselves, the guidelines are widely recognized as the international standard for web accessibility, and many laws and regulations reference the WCAG as the benchmark for complying with the law. This is why people speak of WCAG compliance as a synonym for WCAG conformance.

What are the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines?

WCAG contains technical instructions and success criteria for website owners, designers, and developers. These criteria help them optimize websites to accommodate specific needs, such as assistive technology, screen readers, keyboard-only navigation, and more.

The WCAG 2.2 guidelines require websites to include the following:

  • Strong contrast between text and background color
  • Descriptive alt text for all graphics and images
  • Closed captions and transcriptions for video content
  • Form labels for all input fields
  • Appropriate descriptive tags for all navigation links and buttons

Nearly all digital accessibility regulations worldwide are based explicitly or implicitly on WCAG.

Why Should I Care About Compliance with WCAG 2.2 AA Standards?

Organizations and their design teams should be familiar with the WCAG 2.2 guidelines and continually monitor web content to ensure it meets requirements.

There are three commonly cited reasons to strive for WCAG compliance:

  1. Ensuring inclusion for more people
  2. Optimizing website performance and functionality
  3. Compliance with federal and international regulations

Inclusion

Making websites accessible means removing barriers users face when navigating content. Expanding access means including people with disabilities related to vision, hand motor skills, and neurodiversity. Accessibility also refers to providing access to content from a variety of devices, including mobile phones, tablets, and assistive technology.

Disabilities impact everyone. More than 1 billion people worldwide have a disability. This doesn’t include the countless others who may experience changes in their ability to perform everyday tasks due to age, injury, illness, and even situational limitations.

Optimization

Creating content that adheres to WCAG principles and success criteria results in a well-structured and streamlined website that works for more people. This means a better user experience, more traffic, more conversions, increased sales, fewer abandoned carts, less churn, and a lower bounce rate.

For example, WCAG requires alternative and descriptive text for all non-text content. For an e-Commerce website, coding alt text tags and including transcripts for product marketing material will ensure people who have vision disabilities can buy things from your website. Additionally, keywords used in alternative text and transcripts can help better your SEO.

Regulations

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines are the basis for nearly all digital accessibility regulations worldwide. Organizations that fail to comply with digital accessibility laws expose themselves to significant liabilities, including fines and civil lawsuits.

In the U.S, WCAG 2.0 compliance is explicitly required for government agencies and federal contractors under Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. According to many court rulings and the outcomes of U.S. Department of Justice actions, private U.S. businesses and organizations are also subject to website accessibility laws under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Based on numerous consent orders and settlement agreements, the ADA implicitly requires these private entities to meet WCAG standards.

  • WCAG 2.1 Level AA is required under EN 301 549 for the European Union.
  • The Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) requires WCAG 2.0 Level AA compliance.
  • In Australia, the Web Accessibility National Transition Strategy requires all government agencies comply with WCAG. Private organizations are recommended to apply the WCAG to meet requirements under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act (DDA).
  • The Israel Standard (IS) 5568 applies to most businesses and requires them to adhere to WCAG standards.

With so many laws and regulations pointing directly to the WCAG, conforming with the guidelines means complying with the related law. 

What does WCAG 2.2 AA Mean?

To understand what “WCAG 2.2 AA” or “WCAG 2.2 AAA” mean, we need to break down the terminology.

WCAG Versions

WCAG is a set of guidelines that has been published and maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for nearly 30 years and has undergone a number of revisions since WCAG 1.0, which is now obsolete. The WCAG guidelines are created with input from a diverse, global group of member organizations, academics, W3C staff, and the general public. Members of the UserWay team also contribute to the development of W3C standards.

  • WCAG 1.0 – May 5, 1999 (obsolete)
  • WCAG 2.0 – December, 2008
  • WCAG 2.1 – June 5, 2018 
  • WCAG 2.2 – October, 2023

WCAG 2.0 and 2.1 are the most commonly referenced versions by laws and international regulations. WCAG 2.1 added 17 new success criteria. WCAG 2.2 expands on 2.1 further with more criteria around mobile interface accessibility, as well as a focus on people with cognitive or learning disabilities and users with low vision. WCAG 2.2 guidelines are the latest update for WCAG standards as of August 2023. 

This latest update builds off several pillars of accessible web design that seek to help developers create content that is inclusive for people with visual, hearing, motor, and cognitive impairments. The Working Group responsible for WCAG continues to develop the standard, and WCAG 3.0 is already being drafted.

WCAG Levels

Now that we know about different versions of WCAG, we can begin to explain what someone means when they say that websites should comply with WCAG 2.2 AA standards.

WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) has three levels of conformance: Level A, Level AA, and Level AAA. These levels are used to define the accessibility standards for web content. Each level has specific criteria that need to be met to ensure better accessibility for people with disabilities. The higher the level, the more inclusive and accessible the content becomes.

These levels include:

  • Level A: This is the basic level of accessibility. It includes guidelines that address the most fundamental barriers for users with disabilities. Meeting Level A ensures that some basic accessibility needs are addressed. Example: Providing alternative text for images so that screen readers can read aloud what the image is about. This helps people with visual impairments understand the content of the images.
  • Level AA: This is an intermediate level of accessibility, more comprehensive than Level A. Meeting Level AA means going a step further to accommodate a broader range of disabilities. It includes all Level A requirements and additional criteria. Example: Providing audio descriptions for videos to make them accessible to people who are blind or low vision. This ensures that everyone can understand the content of the videos, not just those who can visually perceive the video. 
  • Level AAA: This is the highest level of accessibility. Meeting Level AAA indicates a very high standard of inclusivity and provides the best possible experience for users with disabilities. It includes all Level A and Level AA requirements, as well as more demanding criteria. Example: Providing users with text transcript, audio description, sign language interpretation, and robust audio descriptions for streaming media. This helps people with different disabilities like low vision, blind, deaf, and hard of hearing perceive content. 

The difference between the levels is in the scope of accessibility they cover. While Level A addresses some basic accessibility needs, Level AA builds upon that to cater to a broader range of users. Level AAA goes even further, ensuring an exceptionally inclusive experience for users with various disabilities. Meeting Level AAA is generally more challenging and may require substantial design and development efforts compared to Level A or AA. However, all three levels are essential for creating a web environment that is truly accessible and usable by everyone. For WCAG compliance, businesses must conform to Level A and Level AA success criteria. AAA conformance is optional but represents the highest level of accessibility.

Success criteria under most WCAG guidelines determine whether content meets WCAG 2.2 Level A, AA, or AAA profiles. For instance, the guidelines for website navigation outlined in Success Criterion 1.2 provide different levels of WCAG classification based on their design and usage. Notice how the granularity increases as the criteria move from A to AAA.

SC 1.2

To get a clear understanding of the distinctions among Level A, Level AA, and Level AAA, let’s explore an illustrative example. In this case, we will focus on success criteria associated with video content to demonstrate how each criterion encompasses unique requirements for achieving success.

  • Level A – 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative 
  • Level AA – 1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded)
  • Level AAA – 1.2.8 – Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

1. Success Criterion 1.2.3 (Level A): Videos with significant visual content must also have another way to perceive for people with visual impairments. This can be done with an audio description or a text alternative. 

2. Success Criterion 1.2.5 (Level AA): This criterion focuses on providing audio descriptions for prerecorded video content. It ensures that people who cannot see the video can still comprehend its content by listening to the audio descriptions.

3. Success Criterion 1.2.8 (Level AAA):  This success criterion asks to provide a text transcript of all the audio content, including the audio description. This helps users who have disabilities related to vision and hearing challenges, such as low vision individuals who cannot perceive captions/visual content, and users who have hearing challenges and cannot perceive audio content.

As the WCAG levels progress from A to AA to AAA, the success criteria become more stringent, requiring additional accessibility measures. By meeting the success criteria at each level, websites become increasingly accessible, making information and multimedia content available to a diverse audience of different abilities.

The Four WCAG Principles

The four principles that guide WCAG serve as the ultimate goals for web accessibility. The following principles provide a philosophy for achieving accessibility on websites globally.

 1. Perceivable: To ensure that users can access and understand the information and interface elements of a website, it is important to present content in a way that can be perceived through at least one of the user’s senses.

2. Operable: It is essential that user interface elements and navigation are fully operable by users. This means that users must be able to easily interact with the interface, and should not be required to perform actions they are unable to do.

3. Understandable: Users must be able to understand the information presented, and should know how to effectively use and navigate the website.

4. Robust: A wide range of user agents, including assistive technologies, should be able to access website information and use the interface. This means that users should be able to continue accessing content even as technologies change.

13 High Level Guidelines in the WCAG Principles

There are also 13 guidelines that fall within the four WCAG principles explained above. A good way to think about their relationship is how these measurable objectives can be used to meet general goals. They are described below and grouped with the principle they support.

Perceivable

  • Text Alternatives – Text alternatives are equivalent replacements for non-text elements, such as providing a label for a form field or a description for an image. These alternatives enable users who cannot see or interact with the non-text content to understand its purpose and context.
  • Time-Based Media – Alt text, transcripts, and closed captions should synchronize with interactive media.
  • Adaptable – All content should be capable of adjusting without losing information when the display size of a website is changed. 
  • Distinguishable – Content should be formatted with appropriate spacing and text size. This includes strong contrast of foreground text with background color and images.

Operable

  • Keyboard Accessible – Websites should be completely and easily operable through keyboard-only navigation. This means websites should not disrupt typical functions of keystrokes or short-cut commands.
  • Enough Time – Ample time should be programmed for all time-based media and access without losing the chance to read or enter respective responses.
  • Seizures and Physical Reactions – All display content and website design should avoid excessive flashing and other typical triggers for seizures.
  • Navigable – A website should offer users straightforward and logical ways to discover and find content. Navigation menus and drop-downs should make sense and be easy to use. Heading and subheading tags should be used to break up long text boxes.
  • Input Modalities – Users should have a similar website experience even with different options for input beyond just a keyboard and mouse. This includes switch controls, eye trackers, and voice commands.

Understandable

  • Readable – All writing should be clear and understandable, avoiding jargon, unusual words and having limited acronyms. Where unfamiliar language is required, it should be qualified with definitions and the full unabbreviated phrase.
  • Predictable – Websites and content should be built to function as people expect them to, with vertical scroll orientation and all navigation links included in the heading and footer margins. 
  • Input Assistance – Users should be able to use saved browser input information to avoid mistakes and ensure accuracy when attempting to fill out login fields and sign-up forms.

Robust

  • Compatible – Websites should strive to be as compatible as possible with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies, in order to provide the best user experience for all users.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is my organization’s website required to follow WCAG 2.2 AA standards?

WCAG 2.2 Level AA is not explicitly required under U.S. law. However, based on several factors, WCAG is implied. A growing list of consent orders and settlement agreements in web accessibility lawsuits under the ADA specifically make WCAG compliance a concession by defendants. Further, Section 508 of the Rehabilitation ACT requires government agencies to comply with WCAG 2.0 standards. If your business is based in California or New York, state law explicitly requires WCAG 2.0 AA conformance, also known as WCAG 2.0 AA compliance.

While there is not a single definitive law stating this in black and white, WCAG 2.2 compliance is one the best ways to avoid expensive legal risks related to web accessibility.

How do I make my website WCAG 2.2-compliant?

Web accessibility compliance is a highly technical project. Bringing a website up to speed with WCAG 2.2 standards can constitute a significant investment in both time and money, and the majority of business owners and in-house IT departments neither have the skill nor work bandwidth to handle such an undertaking. 

Thankfully, there are service providers and products offering a variety of solutions. Businesses can hire developers who specialize in accessibility design and can manually audit and fix issues. Robust software, such as UserWay’s AI-Powered Accessibility Solution, is also making WCAG compliance more affordable and attainable for all businesses.

Is WCAG 2.2 conformance the same thing as WCAG 2.2 compliance?

Yes! The WCAG were authored as a set of guidelines, assessed by success criteria. Organizations conforming with the guidelines could be sure that their digital content did not pose unintended barriers to people with disabilities. Anti-discrimination laws, such as Section 508 of the United States Rehabilitation Act of 1973, directly reference the WCAG as their benchmark for assessing compliance. So whether you call it compliance or conformance, the WCAG is the gold standard for assessing accessibility and ensuring the accessibility of your digital assets.

Is WCAG conformance the same as ADA compliance?

WCAG conformance and ADA compliance are related but distinct concepts. WCAG provides international standards for making digital content accessible to people with disabilities. It offers three levels of conformance: A, AA, and AAA, indicating different levels of accessibility compliance. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a U.S-based landmark legislation signed into law in 1990. It forbids discrimination against people with disabilities in every aspect of public life. The ADA mandates digital accessibility for public accommodations and commercial facilities, which includes websites. In practice, ADA compliance often aligns with achieving at least WCAG Level AA accessibility. ADA compliance encompasses legal obligations specific to the United States, while WCAG is a global accessibility standard.

How does the WCAG 2.2 relate to the WCAG 2.1?

WCAG 2.2 builds upon the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1 (WCAG 2.1), which were issued in June 2018. Content conforming to WCAG 2.2 also adheres to WCAG 2.0 and WCAG 2.1 standards. While WCAG 2.2 can be an alternative means of compliance for policies requiring adherence to WCAG 2.0 or 2.1, it doesn’t replace these earlier versions. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) advises using WCAG 2.2 to enhance the future applicability of accessibility initiatives. Additionally, the W3C encourages organizations to adopt the latest WCAG version when developing or updating web accessibility policies, emphasizing the importance of staying current with evolving accessibility standards.